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端午习俗知多少  

2014-06-01 20:03:31|  分类: 温馨提示 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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端午习俗知多少 - 09级7班 - 七彩的天空
 
端午习俗知多少 - 09级7班 - 七彩的天空
  端午节要到了,端午节有很多习俗,小朋友们你们知道哪些呢?
端午节的习俗:悬钟馗像:钟馗捉鬼,是端午节习俗, 在江淮地区, 家家悬钟馗像, 用以镇宅驱邪。
  唐明皇开元, 自骊山讲武回宫,疟疾大发, 梦见二曳, 一大一小, 小鬼穿大红无裆裤, 赤脚, 偷杨贵妃之香囊和明皇的玉笛。 绕殿而跑。 大鬼则穿蓝袍戴帽,赤双足。捉住小鬼, 挖悼其眼睛, 一只吞下,明皇喝问, 大鬼奏日, 臣姓钟馗, 即武举不第, 愿为陛下除妖魔, 皇醒后, 疟疾愈, 于是令画工吴道子。 照梦中所见画成钟馗捉鬼之图像, 通令天下于端午时,一律张贴,以驱邪魔。
  挂艾叶菖蒲:以艾叶悬于堂中,剪艾力虎形或剪彩为小虎,贴以艾叶,妇人争相戴之,以僻邪驱瘴。用菖蒲作剑,插于门榻, 有驱魔法鬼之神效。 在端阳节,家家都以菖蒲、 艾叶、 榴花、 蒜头、龙船花,制成人形称为艾人。 食菖蒲可以成仙,可以长生, 汉武帝欲求长主之术,曾吃菖蒲两年。
  赛龙舟:当时楚人因舍不得贤臣屈原死去, 于是有许多人划船赶迫拯救, 是为尤舟竞渡之起源, 后每年五月五日划龙舟以纪念之。 借划龙舟驱散江中之鱼, 以免鱼吃掉屈原的尸体。竞渡之习, 盛行于吴,越、楚。
  台湾开始有尤舟竞渡是始于清乾隆二十九年, 由当时台湾知府蒋元君在台南市法华寺半月池主持友谊赛。 现在台湾每年五月五日均举行尤舟竞赛, 香港有竞渡之举,近英国人亦仿效我国人作法, 组织鬼佬队,进行竞赛活动。
  据近代著名的爱国学者闻一多先生的《端午考》说:“端午节本是吴越民族举行图腾祭妃的节日, 而赛龙舟便是祭仪中半宗教。半娱乐性节目。”
  四五千年前, 居住在原始图腾社会的水乡部落的人民,受到蛇虫、 疾病的侵害和水患威胁,为了抵御这些天灾, 他们尊奉想象中的具有威力的龙作为自己的祖先兼保护神(即图腾), 并把船建造成龙形、 画上龙纹, 每年端午举行竞渡。以表示对龙的尊敬,也说明自己是龙的子孙,龙的传人。
  吃粽子:荆楚之人在五月五日煮糯米饭或蒸粽糕投入江中, 以祭祀屈原,为恐鱼吃掉,故用竹筒盛装糯米饭掷下,以后渐用粽叶包米代替竹筒。
  饮雄黄酒:雄黄本属矿物, 含有三硫化砷成分,与酒混合。即成雄黄酒,用以驱虫解五毒,小儿涂于头额。耳鼻,手足心。 并洒墙壁问, 以法诸毒。流传民间之《白蛇传》故事,即是以雄黄酒解蛇虺诸毒,而现白蛇原形。此种习佰,在长江流域地区的人家很盛行。
  游百病:为盛行于贵州地区的端午习俗。 男女老幼往野外游玩, 穿新衣, 在中午一时左右, 路上山上或树下挤满人群,手抱花草, 非常快乐。晚上回家将花草和水煮开洗澡,老年人称为“游百病”及“洗百病”,不出去游百病及洗百病的人,一年到头就不会获得吉利。
  佩香囊:端午节小孩佩香囊,不但有避邪驱瘟之意,而且有襟头点缀之风。香囊内藏有朱砂。 雄黄。香药, 外包以丝布,清香四溢, 再以五色丝线弦扣成索,作各种不同形状,结成一串,形形色色,玲珑夺目。
  带葫芦:端午节带葫芦是历来的风俗,小孩、成人佩带葫芦,不但有避邪驱瘟之意,而且有襟头点缀之风。佩带传统文化寓意"福禄"的葫芦,可以化戾气为平和,增强福缘气场
  The Dragon Boat Festival occurs on the fifth day of the fifth moon of the lunar calendar(阴历). It is one of the three most important of the annual Chinese festivals. The other two are the Autumn Moon Festival and Chinese New Year.
  The story of this colorful festival concerns a famous Chinese scholar-statesman(政治家) named Chu Yuan(屈原) who, some three centuries before the birth of Christ, served the King of Chu(楚怀王)during the Warring States period. As a loyal minister(大臣), Chu Yuan at first enjoyed the full confidence and respect of his sovereign(君主). Eventually, through the intrigues of his rivals, he was discredited(不足信的, 不名誉的).
  Chu Yuan was never able to regain(恢复) the emperor's favor and on the fifth day of the fifth moon in the year 295 B.C.(Before Christ), at the age of 37, Chu Yuan clasped a stone to his chest and plunged into the Milo River(汨罗江) in the Hunan Province(湖南省).
  Respecting the minister as an upright(正直的) and honest man, the people who lived in the area jumped into their boats and rushed out in a vain search for him. This unsuccessful rescue attempt is a part of what the Dragon Boat Festival commemorates every year.
  Probably the most exciting and interesting aspect of the festival is the racing of the Dragon Boats. These races not only symbolize the people's attempt to save Chu Yuan, they also demonstrate the Chinese virtues(美德) of cooperation and teamwork.
  Another activity of the Festival is the making and eating of a kind of dumpling called Tzungtzu (粽子). When it became known that Chu Yuan was gone forever, the people, living along the river, threw cooked rice into the water as a sacrifice(祭品) to their dead hero. They wrapped(包) rice in bamboo leaves(粽叶), and stuffed(填满) it with ham, beans, bean paste(豆沙), salted egg yokes, sausages, nuts, and/or vegetables.
  To the Chinese the fifth lunar moon is more than just the Dragon Boat Festival. Since antiquity(古代), they have believed that this month is a pestilential and danger-fraught(瘟疫的及充满危险的) period. Children born in this month are said to be difficult to raise(抚养), and people tend to concentrate their efforts during this time attempting to protect their families from ills and misfortune. The day of the Dragon Boat Festival is customarily the time when cleaning and sanitation(卫生) are stressed(着重, 强调). Most families hang calamus(菖蒲) and artemisia(艾草) above their doors, both as a decoration and as a preventive against pestilence.
  Ancient folk medicines(民间药物) such as realgar(雄黄酒)are added to the food eaten on the Festival day. This is believed to prevent disease and to promote a healthy digestive system(消化器官). The drinking of realgar in wine supposedly relieves(解除) the effects of poisons accumulated in human bodies.
  The sachets (Hsiang Pao in Chinese香包) are very popular with children and they vie(竞争) with each other to collect as many as possible. Children are not the only ones who collect Hsiang Pao. Older people are often given them as a symbol of respect, and they are highly prized because of the intricate(复杂的) and beautiful embroidery(刺绣) that adorns(装饰) them.
  The Dragon Boat Festival is an entertaining and enjoyable event. It gives the observer an opportunity to glimpse a part of the rich Chinese cultural heritage.
 
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